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pISSN:2286 –3524 ;eISSN-2286 –3524


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Editor in Chief - Germina Cosma - University of Craiova - Theory and Methodology of Motor Activities  Department

Managing Editor - Costin Nanu - University of Craiova - Theory and Methodology of Motor Activities  Department

Scientific Editor - Dorina Orţănescu - University of Craiova - Theory and Methodology of Motor Activities  Department

Scientific Editor - Ligia Rusu - University of Craiova - Kinetotherapy and Sport Medicine Department




Andrzej Piotrowski, Institute of Psychology, University of Gdańsk, Department of Personality Psychology and Forensic Psychology, Gdańsk, Poland

Bogdan Raţă, University of Bacău

Mihai Răzvan Constantin Barbu, University of Craiova

Cătălin Forţan, University of Craiova

Dumitru Barbu, University of Craiova

Mihaela Zavaleanu, University of Craiova

Monoem Haddad, Faculty Sport Science Program College of Arts & Sciences, Qatar University, Qata

Nikos Malliaropoulos, Queen Mary University of London, England

Nilufer Cetislu Korkmaz, Pamukkale University, Denzli, Turkey

Radu Predoiu, University of Physical Education and Sport, Bucharest, Romania

Cătălin Păunescu, University of Medicine and Pharmacy ”Carol Davila”, Bucharest

Aurora Ungureanu, University of Craiova

Luminiţa Marinescu, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Craiova

Mirela Shaoo, University of Craiova

Ryszard Makarowski, Faculty of Health Sciences, Elblag University of Humanities and Economics, Elblag, Poland

Sorin Cazacu, University of Craiova




Adin Cojocaru – University Spiru Haret, Bucharest

Alin Larion – "Ovidius" University of Constanța, Romania

Arzu Razak Özdinçler - İstanbul University, İstanbul, Turkey

Bas Aslan Ummuhan – Pamukkale University, Denzli, Turkey

Marian Dragomir – University of Craiova, Romania

Eugenia Roşulescu -University of Craiova, Romania

Gloria Raţă - "Vasile Alecsandri" University of Bacău, Romania

Grigore Vasilica - University of Physical Education and Sport, Bucharest, Romania

Hakan Uysal - Osmangai University, Eskisehir, Turkey

Hasan Hallaçeli - Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay, Turkey

Ilker Yılmaz - Anadolu University, Eskisehir, Turkey

Ilona Ilinca - University of Craiova

Irina Juhas  -  University of Belgrade, Serbia

Kursad Sertbas - Kocaeli University Faculty of Sport Science/Kocaeli - Turkey

Liliana Mihăilescu – University of Pitesti, Romania

Malgorzata Sobera - University School of Physical Education, Wroclaw, Poland

Marian Crețu – University of Pitesti, Romania

Mariana Cordun - University of Physical Education and Sport, Bucharest, Romania

Mehmet Uygur – University of Delaware, USA

Mihaela Oraviţan – West University of Timisoara, Romania

Mihnea Marin - University of Craiova, Romania

Mirela Călina - University of Craiova, Romania

Roberta Gheţu - University of Craiova

Rucsandra Elena Dănciulescu Miulescu, University of Medicine and Pharmacy ”Carol Davila”, Bucharest

Selçuk Akpinar - Nevşehir University, Turkey

Stevo Popovic - University of Montenegro, Montenegro

Taina Avramescu - University of Craiova, Romania

Tatiana Dobrescu -"Vasile Alecsandri" University of Bacău, Romania

Toganidis Theodoros – Democritus University of Thrace, Greece

Uğur Cavlak -Pamukkale University, Denzli, Turkey 

Ummuhan Baş Aslan - Pamukkale University, Denzli, Turkey

Virgil Tudor -University of Physical Education and Sport, Bucharest, Romania

Zaggelidis Georgios - Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece




ISSN 2286 – 3524                                                                      

ISSN-L 2286 – 3524 

 Publisher: Universitaria

156 Brestei Street, 200177, Craiova, Romania

Editorial office address:

University of Craiova, Physical Education and Sports Faculty

156 Brestei Street, 200177, Craiova, Romania








Sorin Ștefan ALBEANU1, Marian DRAGOMIR1,2, Daniel NICOLAE1, Augustin IANCU1, Dumitru BARBU2

1 University of Craiova, Doctoral School of Social Science and Humanities

2University of Craiova, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Craiova, Romania

Correspondence address:This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


The paper highlights the use of small side games (SSG), in which junior football players A worked at high intensity and managed to successfully cope with the anaerobic effort of strength training days, especially explosive strength (MD4), the predominant ones were accelerations and decelerations, changing the direction of running in a duel with the direct opponent, but also specific game situations of speed, especially starting speed (MD2). The first part, the theoretical one, demonstrates the usefulness of a training method according to an effective tactical periodization model, in which authors in the field of performance football recommend the need to train athletes to be able to withstand intense efforts as long as possible.

The practical part shows significant increases in training through dueling exercises in small spaces (SSG), which comes from participating in Agility Tests with the Blaze Pod System. This is the first Flash Reflex training system for all players, featuring sensor pods, built-in connectivity and lighting that guides users’ workouts. The second test was the Agility Test T, which measures the athlete's ability to accelerate and decelerate in all directions (forward-backward, left-right), which we performed as standard but also with the ball. The ball test was carried with the ball driving, the movement being carried out in the same way, except for the last 10m, when the movement was carried out in the forward direction.

In conclusion, it was found that the development of speed and agility of football players would create the conditions for achieving high performances. The exercises used increased the explosive power of the lower body, thus the ability to accelerate, change direction and quickly decelerate could increase the players’ chances of win one-to-one duels or execute technical procedures of attack and defense effectively in a match. Thus, the device used by us to investigate the reactive agility of junior football players (Blaze Pod) represents a recent visual-cognitive technology that can be successfully applied in monitoring the training of junior soccer players.

Keywords: football, juniors, explosive strength, speed, agility.


Iustin Adrian CROITORU1,  Monica COJOCARU2, Horia Alin BURILEANU3

1 National University of Physical Education and Sport, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Bucharest, Romania

2 Ecological University, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Bucharest, Romania

3 University of Craiova, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Craiova, Romania

*Corresponding author: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Playing a sports game at a competitive level requires considerable physical effort that can only be sustained by excellent physical condition. The effort provided during both training and official competitions must be permanently in the attention of the specialised coach, who should be primarily concerned with preventing excessive fatigue in athletes. A clinical form of chronic pathological fatigue (an imbalance of the whole body, which strongly affects both the physical and mental spheres) is caused by overtraining. Modern means of tracking physical parameters in real time allow the coach to correctly dose exercise intensity as well as the frequency and length of the necessary breaks. The coach also has modern means of restoring the functional systems used during exercise, while being aware that these systems recover at different time intervals. The correct relationship between the recovery process and the recovery time of energy sources is essential in the effectiveness of the athlete’s body recovery technique. The proper load-recovery ratio is the key to the training process, and the decision on the recovery procedure will affect the physical condition of athletes. In the recovery process, specialists can use relaxation techniques, oxygenation, negative air ionisation, active or passive rest, medication, alkaline diet, massage, sauna, acupuncture, acupressure, thermotherapy, cold compression/therapy, vibration therapy, electrostimulation and lymphatic drainage.

Keywords: exercise, fatigue, physical recovery, training session.



Radu PREDOIU1, Valentin GOLOVCA2, Alexandra PREDOIU1*, Ewa SYGIT-KOWALKOWSKA3, Laurențiu Daniel TICALĂ1, Germina COSMA4, Camelia BRĂNEȚ5, Klára KOVÁCS6

1 National University of Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Bucharest, Romania

2 Swim Factory Sports Club, Bucharest, Romania

3 Kazimierz Wielki University, Department of Psychology, Bydgoszcz, Poland

4 University of Craiova, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Craiova, Romania

5 Polytechnic University of Bucharest, Faculty of Medical Engineering, Bucharest, Romania

6 University of Debrecen, Institute of Educational Studies, Debrecen, Hungary

*corresponding author: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Coaches are given an essential role in a process that can enhance youth engagement and increase the chance to obtain top level performances in sport. The scope of the research was to investigate the relationship between organizational climate and competitive anxiety in swimming coaches. Also, the current study wants to emphasize differences in perceived organizational climate and competitive anxiety among coaches according to sports performances, experience and gender. Thirty Romanian swimming coaches (M = 28.93), 15 male and 15 female participated in the study. The Competitive Anxiety in Sport Questionnaire and The ECO System - investigating different components of the organizational climate were used. The results showed that female swim coaches perceived the tasks to be clearer within the sports organization in which they work, felt that there was more support from the organization's management, that relationships with colleagues and, also, the reward/ motivational system were better, compared to the male swim coaches. The Mann-Whitney (U) test was used to investigate the differences between swimming coaches taking into account coaches’ experience level, gender and obtained sports performances (competitive anxiety and perceived organizational climate were approached). Furthermore, using the Spearman correlation, the associations between different dimensions of organizational climate and competitive anxiety of swimming coaches (separately for male and female coaches) were discussed. The findings of the current study provide valuable information to sports managers (and sports psychologists), which can intervene to increase the quality of life of employees (in this case, swimming coaches).

Keywords: trait anxiety, organizational climate, coaches, swimming.



Leonardo Daniel PĂSĂRIN1, Mаrius Cătălin POPESCU 1, Marian Gabriel POPA1, Drаgoş Lаurențiu DIАCONESCU 1

1Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, University of Craiova, Romania

Correspondence address: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Abstract: More and more companies are investing in sports. In the early years of sports, the sponsors were mainly companies related to video games or the whole computer and high-tech industries. A few years later, the sports audience changed. Instead of the savvy players who support a few teams in an obscure scene, sports competitions now fill stadiums and air on the big TV networks. The sports audience has evolved from a circle of initiates to the general public. Sports events now bring together well-known players, sports fans who invite the online version of their favorite team, as well as children and grandparents. As the audience grows, more and more companies are able to target their customers. Brands from various industries now sponsor sports such as Coca-Cola, Gillette, Redbull, BMW, Nike and Louis Vuitton.

In this paper we started with a short presentation of what sports product branding means, personal branding in sports and some of the best sponsored sports campaigns. In the study of 60 respondents, we wanted to see if the brand of a sports product and the athlete or club that represents their image has any influence on the decision to buy.

Keywords:  brand, sponsorship activation, social media, athlete.


Antoanela OLTEAN1, Ionuț TĂNASE1, Alin LARION1, Răducu POPESCU1

1Ovidius University of Constanta, Physical Education and Sport Faculty

*corresponding author: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Abstract: Increasing the intensity in the execution of the elements of aerobic gymnastics requires a more difficult general and specific physical training to be able to cope with the requirements imposed by the scoring code. Over time, aerobic gymnastics has evolved and, at the same time, the elements of difficulty are more difficult to perform. The main purpose of this paper is to intervene in the initiation methodology and to improve the technical preparation of the elements imposed on juniors III in aerobic gymnastics with the help of specific physical training exercises.

The research subjects were divided into two groups of 8 athletes, with the main inclusion criterion being at least 3 years of performance sports experience.

We conclude that the motor training of junior athletes influences the performance of mandatory elements in competition exercises, but the execution of required elements, in combinations or individually, can be influenced by external factors. The article highlights the need for more research at this level of performance in aerobic gymnastics, which points the possibilities of correct execution of the elements imposed by the scoring code related to the sport category.

Keywords: aerobic gymnastics, physical training, technical preparation


Mirela SHAAO1, Maria SHAAO2

1University of Craiova, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Craiova, Romania

2Freelance Translator, Craiova, Romania

*Corresponding author: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Abstract: Sport is one of the areas to which the European Union (EU) currently attaches great importance. This aspect is reflected in the permanent concerns of strengthening the EU policy in the field of sports. In this regard, it can be observed that in The European Union’s Work Plan on Sport 2021-2024, a new European Model of Sport is taking shape, which is based on the current European values. Specialists in EU law mention that the first landmarks of the model appeared with the specific jurisprudence that somewhat forced the EU’s involvement in sports and the application of its legislation in this area of interest. The decisions of The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) in C-36/74 Walrave and Koch, C-13/76 Donà, C-415/93 Bosman, C-176/96 Lehtonen, C-51/96 and C-191/97 Deliège, C-519/04 Meca-Medina, C-325/08 Bernard or C-22/18 Biffi are expressions of European law applied to the specificity of sport that bring significant changes. Although the CJEU rules only on the cases it receives and which meet the conditions for the application of European law, the competence of the EU in the field of sports has continuously developed. Thus, with the modification of EU policies, the existence of the economic activity requirement was eliminated, and non-economic sports activities entered the scope of application of EU law. Besides the competition rules, CJEU has dealt with cases related to EU citizenship and discrimination on grounds of nationality, free movement of persons (related to professional and amateur sportspeople) and free movement of services.

Keywords: sports law; amateur sports; European citizenship




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